A Focus on Ophthalmic Therapies
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Dry Eye Disease
This multifactorial chronic disease of the ocular surface is characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, resulting in pain, visual impairment, tear-film hyperosmolarity and instability, inflammation, and corneal wounding.
adults around the world are estimated to have dry eye disease
adults in the United States are estimated to suffer from dry eye disease
Dry eye disease affects daily life, including reading and driving at night, and has been associated with depression and migraines. Underlying dry eye disease can limit your ability to tolerate contact lenses and impacts satisfaction in post-op cataract and refractive patients. Despite the high prevalence of dry eye and the burden of the disease, there remains a significant unmet need for effective therapies.
More about Dry Eye Disease
Dry eye disease is a multifactorial chronic disease of the ocular surface characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, resulting in pain, visual impairment, tear film hyperosmolarity and instability, inflammation, and corneal wounding.1 More than 340 million adults globally and approximately 38 million adults in the United States are estimated to suffer from dry eye disease.2,3
Chronic symptoms of dry eye disease include a scratchy sensation (foreign body sensation), stinging or burning, episodes of excess tearing that follow periods of dryness, discharge, pain, and redness in the eye. In addition, patients with dry eye disease often experience blurred vision as the cornea and the tear film are responsible for 65% to 75% of the eye’s focusing power.
Underlying dry eye disease can limit patients’ ability to tolerate contact lenses and impacts satisfaction in post-op cataract and refractive patients. Despite the large prevalence of dry eye and the burden of the disease, there remains a significant unmet need for effective therapies.
Neurotrophic Keratopathy (NK)
NK is a rare degenerative disease of the cornea characterized by reduction or loss of corneal sensitivity that can be asymptomatic or present with red eye. During the early stages of the disease, there may be a minor decrease in visual acuity, eventually leading to loss of vision.
people are estimated to suffer from neurotrophic keratopathy
As NK progresses, epithelial defects and corneal ulcers may develop, causing scarring and astigmatism, which can lead to further loss of vision. Eventually, corneal melting and perforation can result in complete vision loss.
More about NK
NK is a disease characterized by decreased corneal sensitivity and poor corneal healing. The most common causes of corneal sensation loss are viral infections (herpes simplex virus and herpes zoster keratoconjunctivitis), followed by chemical burns, physical injuries, and ophthalmic surgery.
In addition, systemic diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis may decrease sensory nerve function or damage sensory fibers. NK can be classified broadly into 3 stages:
- • Stage 1 (mild) consists of ocular surface irregularities and reduced vision
- • Stage 2 (moderate) exhibits a nonhealing persistent defect of the corneal epithelium
- • Stage 3 (severe) exhibits corneal ulceration, which may progress to corneal melting and perforation
If not adequately addressed, NK can lead to vision loss and a breakdown of corneal integrity, potentially leading to cornea transplantation.
1. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, et al. TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report. Ocul Surf. 2017;15:276-283.
2. Market Scope 2016 Dry Eye Products Report: A Global Market Analysis for 2015 to 2021.
3. Paulsen AJ, Cruickshanks KJ, Fischer ME, et al. Dry eye in the beaver dam offspring study: prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;157(4):799-806.